Fitted in the Murcian biogeografic unit – Almería, the region of Níjar presents climatic peculiarities (subbarren with high humidity average and high evaporation and solar exhibition) and edafologic with grounds and volcanic relief of little fixation, that condition the presence of a weak vegetation able to take advantage of the rainfall (climatófila) and a edáfica vegetation (that does not depend on rain, adapting to the ground or hidden precipitations to survive) great variety and wealth.
It is a floor of thermal Mediterranean vegetation that represents here one of more peculiar the florísticas units of the Peninsula with numerous curiosities, like the palmito (Chamaerops humilis), only native palm of the continent, the lentisco, the arcs and azufaifos (Ziziphus Lotus), prodigious adaptation to means.
We will make a clear distinction in 4 biotopos
Volcanic sands and coastal cliff, dunes, sandy grounds and saladares.
In the zone of influence of the surge some live líquenes specialized and small seaweed.
They are steep of vertical wall where we found some vegetal redoubt in cavities and landings. It is cormofítica vegetation adapted to support the salinity, like hinojo sailor (Crithmum maritimum) and the saladinas, (Lycium intricatum).
In beaches, where organic rest with the surge can arrive, we found the caterpillar of sea (marine Cakile). The embryonic dunes of the coast, lodge a little and very poor vegetation in gramíneas, between which it dominates Cottony compound (Otanthus Maritimus) and the Elymus Factus.
In the following inner band, the one of movable dunes, we can see gramíneas like the Barrón (arundinacea Ammophila arenaira).
Still more moved away of the water, the semi-portable dunes, with the presence of camefíticas species, like Bolina or Pegamoscas (Ononis natrix ramosissima).
In fixed dunes, we found tarayales of boveana Tomarix and species halófilas like the Limonium delicat um, and where there is greater humidity, the great almajos (insipid scorpiurus) like the fruticosa Sarcocomia that in this band we can find in more persistent brackish pools.
Also “barronal” call and “low scrub”, between which it emphasizes the cupola of azufaifo, microworld under which to numerous vegetal species and animals are hidden, are here next to the sea.
Finally, in the superior zone of cliffs and in volcanic slopes, we have the “comical”, the “retamales” and some “lentisco” witness of a previous abundance. Black small wood of palmitos and hawthorns alternate with tomillares, efedras, bufalagas, pegamoscas, oroval, etc. completing with their noticeable noteafricano character a unique landscape in Europe.
It is here where they are developed most of species of edáfica vegetation with unique varieties in the world (Teucrium charidemi, Antirrhinum charidemi) and where we found the aquatic birds, centered mainly in the area of reserve of Navy – Amoladeras and the old lagoon that forms the salt mines of Cabo de Gata today.
The scrub and the forest under thorny (the mount slope boulevards, Serrata and hills and precipices).
The espartal, to aulagar and to tomillar composes the vast extensions of degradation scrub (vegetation adapted to the human presence) that, from the cutting and it burns of the weak preexisting wooded base (high ligneous scrub), dominates to the slopes and hills of practically all the region.
In spite of his doubtless botanical interest, it forms the zone of duller landscape, cheered for small oases of palms, chumberas and you toot or agaves of high pitaco, next to isolated witnesses of old olive groves, almendrales and fig trees.
Dry zone of orchards:
The tree (the Colativí, Níjar and the orchards of the coast, Fernán Perez, the Hortichuelas, the Well of the Friars.
The small wooded enclaves of Genoveses, San jOse, precipice of the Black, Apricots, Bitter Water _) Near the Colativí can be found rest of old forests of oaks and small arboreal groupings witness of rainier times.
It is from the Colativí towards the south by slopes of Alhamilla Mountain range, in Inox, Huebro and Villa, where we found the best conditions of ground and humidity of the region.
The water of the springs, the shade of the riscos and the agricultural work have favored the appearance of the greater “green oasis” of the region, where we can find unit of olma, carob tree, chestnut tree, walnut, eucalyptus, pines, cattles, olive trees, fig trees, palms and of course, a great variety of fruit trees and trees of irrigated land between which it dominates naranjo.
The orchards and bancales in high mount maintain testimony of cultures and hoisted of dry land that alternated with native species.
Also they are contiguous and they hold often the bancales with chumberas here and you toot. Next to the watered drains and precipices it is the rush, the cane and sinfín of flowers, olorosas plants, to rbustos and trepadoras.
The height and the greater humidity, as well as the temperature difference towards lower values, cause a slight reduction in the fauna of invertebrates, clearer in the zones of intensive culture and due to the fumigated agriculturist, being in general the same one already described.